Toothed Mushrooms - mushrooms found on the ground (or cones!) with teeth or spines under the cap. If found on wood, they are simply a bundle of spines or individual, brittle (not gelatinous like jellies) spines.
Exceptions: These are not cap-and-stem mushrooms, nor are they bundles of spines or individual teeth, but small teeth (<1mm) growing out of a flat surface growing on wood. They are found in the crusts category. Some polypores have ragged tooth-like pores, be sure to check there too if your mushroom grows on wood.
Steccherinum ochraceum - spines and cap white to orange brown when fresh, flat on wood or partly curved away, cap sticking out ~1cm. See crusts.
Key to Toothed Fungi:
Hydnum - soft and edible, white to pale orange mushrooms with a cap and stem. White spores. Less sordid (dingy or dirty looking) than Sarcodon and Bankera (which can also be orange or white). Related to the chanterelle, and also mycorrhizal, growing on the ground. White spores like Bankera. Formerly called Dentinum.
Sistotrema confluens - a related somewhat stemmed mushroom, with irregular teeth under the white to pale orange "cap" (or pores or just wrinkles, making it difficult to key out). <2cm. Other species are crusts.
Sarcodon - These next four groups are also mycorrhizal and in the Thelephorales order, growing on the ground and they all have nodulose spores like Thelephora. Forgive me for editorializing, but these mushrooms are more sordid looking than the "clean" look of Hydnum, which can look very similar. The spores are warty and brown, unlike Bankera which are warty and white. Very confusingly, these were once called Hydnum (when Hydnum was called Dentinum). Usually from 5-15cm across, or sometimes larger, depending on the species. Most smell farinaceous or spicy.
S. calvatus - our largest species, brownish cap breaking into small scales. Up to 25-30cm. May be fragrant.
S. leucopus (laevigatus) - smooth, cracking cap, grey-brown, stem and flesh stain lavender, curry odor like Bankera when dried.
S. subincarnatus - grey-brown with vinaceous tones, flesh stains pink when cut.
S. versipellis (crassus) - smooth cap, orange-brown, cap flesh stains yellow-green when cut.
S. indurescens - another orangish Sarcodon that stains vinaceous-pink, but only in the stem base.
Bankera - Very much like Sarcodon but with small, white, spinier spores (spores are smaller with sharper spines than Sarcodon) and a little more sordid than the similar Hydnum. When dried out they will smell strongly like Maggi spice, a kind of maple curry odor. When fresh, the colours of these species are a little different than the brown spored Sarcodon, but you may need to take a spore print to differentiate them. Usually between 5-10cm across.
tougher with firmer flesh than Sarcodon/
H. conigenum - small and thin like Phellodon, flesh not zoned, bright orange teeth.
H. complicatum - clustered orange rosettes, not farinaceous
H. complectipes - caps more fused together, farinaceous.
H. scrobiculatum grp (concrescens (zonatum)/
H. peckii - "strawberries and cream" - red drops when young, insanely hot peppery taste. Like H. scrobiculatum when old.
H. ferrugineum - mild taste
H. cyanopodium - blue bottom, flesh and young cap. No licorice odor (unpleasant instead), may also bleed red juice.
H. mirabile - brown, without red or orange tints. Much like H. scrobiculatum or old H. peckii, but bleeds yellow-brown juice when young.
Phellodon - smaller, <5cm across, with the short squat stature of Hydnellum, but "cap" flesh that is conspicuously thinner (but see the orange Hydnellum conigenum). With white nodulose spores and a strong odor of Maggi curry spice when dried just like Bankera.
These next groups are not mycorrhizal but saprophytic, and related to the Russulas.
Auriscalpium vulgare - "ear pick" - a distinctive tiny (<2.5cm) mushroom growing on Douglas-fir cones with an eccentric stem. Like Russula, it has amyloid spiny spores.
Echinodontium tinctorium - a perennial wooden conk on true fir and hemlock, bright rusty interior, spines under cap wear away irregularly. Easily mistaken for a polypore. Like Russula, it has amyloid, spiny spores. Popular for dyeing clothing.
H. americanum - (used to be called H. coralloides) - similar but less branched, but usually found on hardwood.
H. coralloides (ramosum) - smaller spines (<8mm) distributed along the entire branch, sometimes in small tufts, with a more open and coralloid look. Usually on Hardwood.
Mucronella - individual teeth hanging down from wood resembling crusts and sometimes growing upwards when young like club fungi. Each tooth is usually <1cm long. They are somewhat related to gilled mushrooms in the Agaricales, along with the Clavaria club fungi.
M. fusiformis - a tiny stem at the point of attachment. <5mm
M. pendula - also with a tiny stem, looks more watery
Pseudohydnum gelatinosum - teeth underneath the cap! White, <5cm, on conifer debris.
Actually a jelly fungus in the Auriculariales.